LA CLIMATOLOGIA DELL’ALTO JONIO


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La  climatologia dell’alto versante jonico cosentino  viene dettata essenzialmente da caratteristiche orografiche e geo-morfologiche del territorio. Premettendo infatti che stiamo parlando di un ‘area di circa 750 km² ubicata sull’estremo lembo nord-orientale della Calabria  al confine con la Basilicata , gli elementi che vanno ad incidere in maniera preponderante sulla micro-climatologia del luogo sono :

  • il Mare Jonio ad Est
  • Il Massiccio del Pollino ad Ovest

Il Pollino (che lo ricordiamo è  la più’ alta vetta dell’appennino meridionale culminante con i 2267 mt slm di Serra Dolcedorme) si comporta come una vera e propria barriera , quasi insormontabile ,per le masse d’aria umide atlantiche  che provengono dal Tirreno : considerando una circolazione prevalente West-East ,e quindi  i giorni di pioggia annui, è facile dedurre che tra i due versanti del Pollino (ma in generale di tutta la Calabria),quello tirrenico presenta precipitazioni più abbondanti rispetto a quello jonico. Da questa piccola premessa si capisce che il regime pluviometrico tipico dell’Alto Jonio viene dettato essenzialmente da una  componente Est delle correnti (SE,E,NE). Fatta questa premessa non si può tuttavia affermare che l’Alto Jonio sia totalmente “Riparato” dagli Afflussi Tirrenici. A  tal riguardo vanno menzionate  le Depressioni Basso Tirreniche con direttrice delle correnti da Sud-Ovest (SW): il Libeccio  , ben noto per  le grandi piogge  sul Tirreno Cosentino (Asse Paola-Acri) , specie se abbinato ad un profondo minimo  tirrenico,  può in alcuni casi apportare quantitativi pluviometrici non del tutto  trascurabili anche sull’Alto Jonio . In queste configurazioni, soprattutto la parte centro-meridionale del territorio (Asse Cerchiara di Calabria-Plataci-Albidona),  riceve buone precipitazioni per cd  “Sfondamento” sulla Piana di Sibari delle Cellule Tirreniche. Non di rado in queste situazioni bariche, Cerchiara di Calabria raggiunge picchi precipitativi molto simili a quelli che si riscontrano nel territorio di Acri (molto di piu’ esposto agli afflussi Tirrenici).


INVERNO

Durante il periodo invernale (specie in regime di Scambi Meridiani N-S) lo Jonio  (uno dei mari piu’ caldi e profondi del Meditarrenao)  è spesso foriero di Minimi Barici .Durante l’inverno infatti  la massa d’aria sovrastante il Mar Mediterraneo è più calda di quella sovrastante la penisola :ciò porta alla formazione di venti diretti verso la zona di minore pressione (quella più calda) e favorisce le precipitazioni soprattutto sulle isole e nelle estreme regioni meridionali(area jonicaPuglia meridionale e Salento).In presenza di un minimo barico sullo Jonio, sia esso Primario (se si concepisce direttamente sul mare in questione) o Secondario (se si innesca da un Minimo Basso Tirrenico in Traslazione) , Masse Cospicue di umidità risalgono da  E/SE e vanno ad impattare sui settori orientali di Calabria e Sicilia, condensando poi enormi quantitativi di precipitazioni laddove l’Orografia del territorio è più Accentuata: Pollino, Sila,  Aspromonte ed Etna Orientali  ricevono grandi quantitativi  di piogge,  che  concentrandosi  in un intervallo temporale relativamente breve, non di rado danno genesi a fenomeni cd  di “Alluvioni Lampo con annessi  fenomeni di dissesto idro- geologico. Eventi intensi non sono così rari come si potrebbe ritenere in una analisi superficiale, basata soltanto sulla misura della quantità di pioggia. Di fatto, solo per richiamare alcuni eventi “storici”, basta ricordare l’evento del il 26-27 Ottobre 1973 nel corso del quale i pluviometro di Rossano  ha misurato483,2 mm in meno di 48 ore .La storia più recente poi è troppo nota per dovere essere qui ricordata: ultimo in ordine di tempo, ma primo per le tragiche conseguenze l’evento di Soverato del Settembre 2000, con conseguenze devastanti su tutta la fascia jonica della Calabria Centrale e Settentrionale.Con Correnti da SE (Depressioni Africane Pure) i settori che ricevono i maggiori apporti son quelli Jonici Meridionali (Aspromonte,Serre,Sila Orientali), viceversa , con correnti da E/NE (Jonio Low, Minimo Tirrenico in Traslazione )  a ricevere i maggiori apporti sono i Settori Jonici Settentrionali (Pollino Orientale,Sila greca). Quando di rado in inverno l’Anticiclone Russo-Siberiano si estende ad Occidente, in direzione dell’Europa Occidentale (UK,Francia,Spagna,Italia Settentrionale), minimi molto profondi si innescano di contro sullo Jonio, o per traslazione (Tirreno Low in Traslazione), o per moto Retrogrado Diretto (Jonio Low, Taranto Low).

febbraio 2012

In tutte queste situazioni la Sila Grecanica ( o Sila Greca)  e il Pollino Orientale vengono interessati da violente bufere di neve (spesso sotto forma di Tormenta con tipico Fenomeno dello “Scaccianeve”) che a volte durano per giorni interi . Nel passato recente non si può prescindere dal ricordare l’Emergenza del  Febbraio 2012 , con paesi come Alessandria del Carretto (quasi 3  mt caduti a fine evento  in qs località), Albidona, Nocara, Longobucco Bocchigliero bloccati da metri di Neve.

ESTATE

Se la Componente da est in inverno è  la causa in alcuni casi di ingenti quantitativi di precipitazioni (Jonio Low), nella stagione estiva di contro puo’ essere la causa di intense ondate di calore.Queste sono  collegate a situazioni meteorologiche che provocano un innalzamento della temperatura di almeno 5°C rispetto alla media stagionale.Tali eventi sono abbastanza frequenti nella stagione estiva, e manifestandosi in forma più intensa sul versate jonico, danno luogo a temperature che superano sovente i 40°C.

 

VENTI

Analizzando l’andamento stagionale si nota che in Inverno prevalgono i venti provenienti dai quadranti settentrionali, mentre in Primavera dominano le correnti da Ovest ed in Estate le circolazioni termicamente indotte. In autunno, infine, non si rileva una direzione prevalente.In Inverno, soprattutto quando i vortici tendono ad allontanarsi verso la Grecia, tutto l’Alto Jonio viene battuto da forti venti Settentrionali con raffiche che nelle zone esposte possono superare facilmente i100 Km/h. Sulla costa , i settori che ne risentono maggiormente della Ventilazione  Settentrionale sono quelli che vanno da CAPO SPULICO verso Nord (Roseto,Montegiordano,Rocca Imperiale), viceversa quando la componente  è  piu’ sciroccale (Sud-Est)  o Libecciale ( da Sud-Ovest) a risentirne dei maggiori effetti sono i settori appena a  sud di CAPO SPULICO (Amendolara,Trebisacce,Villapiana)

Rocco Adduci

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